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طرح پژوهشی نروژ در پی غیرکاربران

غیرکاربران کتابخانه چه کسانی هستند؟ چرا از کتابخانه استفاده نمی‌کنند؟ تبدیل غیرکاربران به کاربران کتابخانه نیاز به چه کاری دارد؟ کتابخانه عمومی سلوبرگ و مرکز فرهنگی عمومی استاوانگر مدت زمان زیادی بر این سؤالات تمرکز داشتند. چیزهایی درباره کسانی که از خدمات ما استفاده می‌کردند می‌دانستیم، اطلاعاتی درباره محدوده سنی و الگوی استفاده و اطلاعاتی درباره خواسته‌ها و نیازهای آنها می‌دانیم. اما افرادی که آن‌ها را میان قفسه‌های کتاب و یا روی مبل بخش موسیقی ملاقات نمی‌کنیم چطور؟

کتابخانه عمومی استاوانگر با انگیزه پاسخگویی به سؤالاتی از این دست، پروژه ۳ ‌ساله‌ای را با نام «در پی غیرکاربران»‌ آغاز کرد. پروژه با همکاری سازمان آرشیوها، کتابخانه‌ها و موزه‌های نروژ، که ۵۰٪ بودجه را تأمین کرد، امکان‌پذیر شد. این طرح پژوهشی در سال ۲۰۰۶ میلادی آغاز شد.

در نروژ، شهر استاوانگر با جمعیت ۱۲۰،۰۰۰ نفر شهر بزرگی محسوب می‌شود. استاوانگر پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر کشور است. شهرهای همسایه (سدنز، سولا و داندابرگ) در مجموع کمی بیش از ۲۰۰،۰۰۰ نفر جمعیت دارند و اکثر آن‌ها در فاصله کمتر از ۳۰ دقیقه از کتابخانه سلوبرگ زندگی می‌کنند.

در ابتدای پروژه، پیمایشی روی غیرکاربران انجام دادیم. این پیمایش دو بخش اصلی داشت: گروه‌های کانونی و مصاحبه‌های تلفنی. این پیمایش با همکاری شرکت بارومتر مارکد آنالیز انجام شد. برای شرکت در گروه کانونی، پاسخ‌دهندگان نباید در سال گذشته از کتابخانه استفاده کرده بودند. کسانی که در نهایت موفق به تماس با آنها شدیم در ۵ سال گذشته (یا حتی مدت زمان طولانی‌تر) از کتابخانه استفاده نکرده بودند. بعضی از آن‌ها هرگز از خدمات کتابخانه استفاده نکرده بودند، و از همین رو غیرکاربرانی تمام عیار بودند!

به طور کلی، ۴ گروه کانونی داشتیم که در هر گروه ۱۵-۱۲ شرکت‌کننده حضور داشت. سه  گروه به غیرکاربران اختصاص داشت که شامل بزرگسالان جوان، خانواده‌های دارای فرزند و بزرگسالان بدون فرزند بود. یک گروه از کاربران کتابخانه هم وجود داشت.

به طور کلی، غیرکاربران تصور بسیار مثبتی از کتابخانه داشتند. علاوه بر این، کاربران کتابخانه را انسان‌هایی سالم و هم باهوش می‌پنداشتند و کارکنان کتابخانه را نیز انسان‌هایی مفید، دانا و صمیمی تصور می‌کردند. با این وجود، خود آنها از کتابخانه استفاده نمی‌کردند.

در گروه خانواده‌هایی که فرزند کوچک داشتند، تعدادی اظهار داشتند که مشکل پیگیری آنچه فرزندانشان از کتابخانه  امانت می‌گیرند دشوار است. این اقلام ممکن بود در خانه به آسانی با وسایل شخصی قاطی شوند و سپس به دست دوستان و مهد کودک و غیره راه پیدا کنند. این امر می‌توانست به جریمه و جبران اقلام کتابخانه‌ای گم‌شده منجر شود، که خود آن هم منفی انگاشته می‌شد و به کودکان در خانواده پیام اشتباه می‌داد.

بر اساس این گفتگوها، پرسشنامه‌ای برای مصاحبه تلفنی طراحی شد. این بار تنها با غیرکاربران تماس نگرفتیم، بلکه با نمونه‌ای  ۶۰۰ نفری از جامعه تماس گرفتیم. ما از آن‌ها پرسیدیم راجع به خدمات و امکاناتی که در کتابخانه ارائه می‌شود چه می‌دانند. غیر از خدمات مربوط به  امانت کتاب‌ها و لوح‌های فشرده، آن‌ها اطلاعات نسبتاً کمی از آنچه کتابخانه ارائه می‌داد داشتند.

با افزایش سن، میزان مراجعه به کتابخانه کاهش می‌یابد. این اطلاعات برای ما جدید یا غیرمنتظره نبود، اما وقتی آمار مراجعه را بررسی می‌کنیم و آن‌ها را با جنسیت مقایسه می‌کنیم، به نتیجه غیرمنتظره‌ای می‌رسیم. به خوبی می‌دانیم که زنان بیشتر از مردان به کتابخانه می‌روند. در پیمایش ما آمار مراجعه مردان در تمام سنین بسیار پایین‌تر از زنان است، جز در گروه سنی ۴۰ تا ۴۹ سال که این‌طور نیست. این گروه نشان‌دهنده اوج سن مردان به عنوان کاربران کتابخانه است و میزان مراجعه آن‌ها با زنان برابر است. متأسفانه آمارها در این سطح باقی نمی‌مانند و مردان از سن ۵۰ سالگی به رتبه‌بندی معمول خود برمی‌گردند که خیلی از زنان عقب هستند، در واقع از همیشه عقب‌تر می‌روند و سپس در همین سطح باقی می‌مانند.

گزارش‌های این پیمایش برخی از اندیشه‌ها و فرضیه‌های ما را تأیید کرد، اما همچنین نتایج شگفت‌انگیزی نیز در مورد غیرکاربران ارائه کرد. برخی از فرضیه‌هایی که با این پیمایش تأیید شدند، عبارتند از: اینترنت رقیبی جدی است؛ غیرکاربران به جای امانت کتاب، آن‌ها را می‌خرند (برخی از غیرکاربران خوانندگان بسیار مشتاقی بودند)؛ و بسیاری نیازهای خود را با روش‌های دیگر برطرف می‌کردند.

در ادامه پروژه «نروژ در پی غیرکاربران» ابتکاراتی را برای پاسخگویی به نیازهای شناسایی شده بوسیله پیمایش اجرا کردیم. دو اقدام که بیشترین تأثیر را داشته‌اند عبارتند از «کتابخانه کوچک» و «کتابخانه تابستانی». وب‌سایت مطالعات کاربران کتابخانه‌های عمومی ایران، این دو تجربه را معرفی خواهد کرد.

در پی غیرکاربران تا حد زیادی تبلیغ سنتی را با ایده‌های جدید ادغام کرد، و موفق شد توجه محافل حرفه‌ای و عموم مردم را جلب کند. این پروژه به ما در کتابخانه سلوبرگ الهام بخشیده است که بیشتر به مفهوم کتابخانه، آنچه می‌تواند باشد و این‌که برای چه کسانی باشد توجه کنیم.

 متن کامل گزارش را اینجا مطالعه فرمایید.

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مخاطبان بالقوه کتابخانه‌ها، اغلب فاقد اطلاعات کافی در مورد مجموعه خدمات وامکاناتی هستند که کتابخانه …

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